Royal Navy Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional character created in 1953 by British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. Since Fleming's death in 1964, several other authors have written authorised Bond novels or novelizations: Kingsley Amis, John Pearson, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd and Anthony Horowitz. Additionally, Charlie Higson and Steve Cole have written a series on a young James Bond. Also, R. D. Mascott (a pseudonym), John Peel (writing as John Vincent) and Caryn Jenner have written books about Bond's supposed nephew, "James Bond, Jr." and Samantha Weinberg (writing as Kate Westbrook) wrote "The Moneypenny Diaries", a series of three books and two short stories about M's secretary, Miss Moneypenny.
The character has also been adapted for television, radio, comic strip, video games and film. The films are the longest continually running and the third-highest-grossing film series to date, which started in 1962 with Dr. No, starring Sean Connery as Bond. As of 2017, there have been twenty-four films in the Eon Productions series. The most recent Bond film, Spectre (2015), stars Daniel Craig in his fourth portrayal of Bond; he is the sixth actor to play Bond in the Eon series. There have also been two independent productions of Bond films: Casino Royale (a 1967 spoof) and Never Say Never Again (a 1983 remake of an earlier Eon-produced film, Thunderball).