René Mathis is a fictional intelligence operative, who first appeared in Ian Fleming's debut novel, Casino Royale. Fleming's Mathis is an agent of the French secret service, the Deuxième Bureau, and a long-time friend of James Bond. He went on to appear in the novels From Russia, with Love, Never Dream of Dying and Devil May Care. A younger version of Mathis also appears in the Young Bond short story A Hard Man to Kill. In 2006 the character was adapted for EON Productions' James Bond film Casino Royale, where Mathis was re-imagined as a Secret Intelligence Service agent, portrayed by Giancarlo Giannini. The character would return for 2008's Quantum of Solace. The character was also loosely adapted for two unofficial productions based on Fleming's Casino Royale.